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The part of a primary research article that comes after the Title and before the Introduction. It is the job of the Abstract to provide a short review of the article, following specific rules and conventions.

Action Research

A form of Qualitative Research that emphasizes working with participants to bring about specific improvements.

Active Learning

A teaching and learning approach that “engages students in the process of learning through activities and/or discussion in class, as opposed to passively listening to an expert. It emphasizes higher-order thinking and often involves group work.” (Freeman 2014)



A systematic process of examining and/or testing Data. It is usually grounded in the Research Questions.


Shorthand for "analysis of variance." An Inferential Statistics technique designed to test if there are differences among three or more Treatment groups.

Applied Research

Research targeted to address specific practical issues or problems. As opposed to Basic Research.


A coherent set of claims to support asking a Research Question. These arguments can either set up the question, support the question, or both set up and support the question.

Asynchronous Instruction

Asynchronous instruction is the idea that students learn similar material at different times and locations. The term is often associated with online learning where students complete readings, assignments, or activities at their own pace and at their own chosen time.  This approach is particularly useful when students are spread across different time zones or may have limited access to technology.


Authentic Assessment

Assessments in which student learners demonstrate learning by applying their knowledge to authentic, complex, real-world tasks or simulations. Proponents of authentic assessment argue that these types of knowledge checks “help students rehearse for the complex ambiguities of the ‘game’ of adult and professional life” (Wiggins, 1990, p.1).

Further Resources:

  • Authentic Assessment. Center for Innovative Teaching and Learning, Indiana University Bloomington.
  • Wiggins, G. (1998). Ensuring authentic performance. Educative assessment: Designing assessments to inform and improve student performance. Jossey-Bass, p. 21-42.



A specialized form of Ethnography that combines ethnographic and autobiographical techniques.

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