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A specialized form of Ethnography that combines ethnographic and autobiographical techniques.


Basic Research

Research conducted to advance knowledge in general, or to satisfy the curiosity of the researcher. As opposed to Applied Research.


Rarely found in Research Articles. A bibliography lists all sources that were useful in creating the article, whether those sources were cited or not. Most often, we find articles using a References section, where actually cited sources are listed.


this is blended learning. 


Books are defined as specialist books which offer an overview, such as text books (course books) for university studies, or books where the author pursues a theory of his or her own. Often books like this include an introductory chapter, providing a good overview of the subject. You can also find useful references to earlier research and original articles. However, you should always keep in mind that it usually takes quite a long period of time to write and publish a book, so certain facts may have become outdated.

Some academic publishers specialize in volumes with chapters written by prominent researchers within the field. Contributions are selected, compiled and reviewed by an editor or sent out to be reviewed by other scholars within the same field.

Note: the above content is directly quoted from the University Library Guides offered by the University Library at Jönköping University


Case Study

A type of Qualitative Research method where a small number of people or situations, sometimes even only one person or situation, is examined in great depth.

Central Tendency

One property of Distributions that is examined in Descriptive Statistics. Central Tendency describes the ways that scores in a distribution cluster around some middle point. Common measures of Central Tendency include the Mode, Median, and Mean.


A statistical technique designed to compare expected and actually observed frequencies, to see if there are any differences between these two categories.


The part of the research article that follows the Results. In the conclusion, results are summarized, explained, implications are examined, and/or future research is suggested.

Conference proceedings

When researchers participate in conferences, it is with the purpose of presenting their research to colleagues within the same field, often internationally. The papers they produce for the conference are published in conference proceedings which are similar to books or anthologies. Like reports, conference proceedings can provide a good overview of current research.

Note: the above content is directly quoted from the University Library Guides offered by the University Library at Jönköping University

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