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Qualitative Research

That type of empirical research that focuses on the study of Meaning and related phenomena in natural settings.

Quantitative Research

That type of empirical research that focuses on the task of identifying and testing basic rules and laws that underlie typical behaviors and settings.

Quasi-Experimental Design

A Research Design that shares most of the properties of a true Experimental Design, except that the Independent Variable cannot be strictly controlled or manipulated.



Correlations are a great tool for learning about how one thing changes with another. Correlation values closer to 0 are weaker correlations, while values closer to positive or negative 1 are stronger correlation. (Source)

In statistics, the Pearson correlation coefficient (PCC) ― also known as Pearson's r, the Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient (PPMCC), the bivariate correlation, or colloquially simply as the correlation coefficient ― is a measure of linear correlation between two sets of data.It is the ratio between the covariance of two variables and the product of their standard deviations; thus, it is essentially a normalized measurement of the covariance, such that the result always has a value between −1 and 1 (-1 ≤ r ≤ 1). (Source)

The "r value" is a common way to indicate a correlation value. More specifically, it refers to the (sample) Pearson correlation, or Pearson's r. The "sample" note is to emphasize that you can only claim the correlation for the data you have, and you must be cautious in making larger claims beyond your data. (Source)

Random Sample

An important type of Sample in Quantitative Research. When a Sample is chosen at random, it lessens the chance for any sort of systematic distortion of that Sample in relation to the Population.


The most primitive measure of Dispersion; it is the distance between the lowest score and the highest score.

Raw Data

Data that have been collected but not yet analyzed.


The part of an article where the published sources that were actually cited in the article are listed alphabetically.


A Statistical process where the values of a predictor Variable are used to help estimate the possible value of a target Variable.


A Statistical test used to measure the accuracy of the process used to gather Data. Some common forms of Reliability include test-retest reliability, alternate forms reliability, and internal consistency.

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