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Confidence Error

Another name for a Type I Error, where the statistical test is too lenient and so the results cannot be trusted. Is also called a False Positive.


A measurement that never changes its value. As opposed to Variable.


A philosophical position adopted by some qualitative researchers. In its most radical form, constructivism argues that there is no inherent knowledge in the world, but that we create all knowledge. Less radical forms argue that we co-create certain kinds of knowledge in social situations.

Consumer of Research

A person who has no intention or need of becoming a researcher but who needs to know how to read and understand research reports and articles. As such people become more skilled and literate in research, they become Research Critics.

Convenience Sample

A type of Sample where Participants who are readily available are used. One of the weakest and least systematic types of Samples.


A statistical test where two variables are compared on a pair-by-pair basis. A positive correlation indicates a strong direct relationship, a negative correlation indicates a strong inverse relationship, and a zero correlation indicates no relationship.

Critical Theory

A type of Theory most often found in Qualitative Research, where hidden Ideologies are uncovered and consciousness of their effects are raised.



Plural of Datum; a collection of measurements or information used in a research study. Data that have been collected but not yet analyzed are called Raw Data.


A single piece of information, or a single measurement. Rarely used; most often discussed in the plural form as Data.

Dependent Variable

Usually found in Experimental or Quasi-Experimental Designs, the Variable that changes as the result of the treatment. Sometimes used in any Quantitative Research study that looks at the impact of different effects. As opposed to an Independent Variable.

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