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False Negative

Another name for a Power Error, where the statistical test is too stringent and so significant results cannot be identified. Is also called a Type II Error.

False Positive

Another name for a Confidence Error, where the statistical test is too lenient and so the results cannot be trusted. Is also called a Type I Error.


Another name for Results; sometimes the term Findings is used to describe Results from less controlled settings and field-oriented research.

Focus Group

A research strategy in Qualitative Research where six to eight Participants are asked a systematic number of questions to get at both individual and group understandings.



The ability to extend a particular set of procedures or findings to a larger group than the given set of Participants or conditions for a given study.


What the researcher is hoping to accomplish in the research study. Related to the Purpose.

Grounded Theory

A specialized form of Qualitative Research where the researcher starts with no preconceptions and builds Theory by collecting Data from the ground up.


Halo Effect

A source of systematic error in Quantitative Research where change of any kind tends to affect results in a positive way.


In this context, handbooks are defined as publications that provide theoretical overviews rather than practical instructions. Handbooks contain collections of chapters which cover a certain subject area or field. They can provide you with an introduction, the theories that are used within the research, and its most important authors, as well as good reference lists of the most important contributions to the field.

Handbooks explain the various terms used within the specific field. Therefore, handbooks provide a shortcut to important original sources.

Note: the above content is directly quoted from the University Library Guides offered by the University Library at Jönköping University


HEI refers to higher education institution.

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