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A Qualitative Research technique where Participants are asked to answer questions and provide information orally. Can be either structured interview, unstructured interview or semi-structured interview.


The beginning part of a research article, where the researchers lay out their Purpose, Goals, Research Questions, and Arguments.

Investigative Research Design

A type of Qualitative Research where the researcher is seeking to dig deeper into a situation or phenomenon in order to find something new or previously less well understood.


Journal articles

Journal articles are published in different kinds of periodicals, such as trade magazines or scholarly journals. They are usually shorter compared to other scientific publications, such as research reports. 

In most fields, scholarly journal articles are considered to have the highest scientific value of all publication types. One reason for this is that before journal articles are published, they are reviewed by other researchers within the same discipline. This process is called 'peer review'.

Bear in mind that the time between writing an article and when it is published can take up to two years, so some facts may become outdated.

There are different types of scholarly articles:

  • Original articles present research results (in the form of empirical studies) for the first time.
  • Review articles are critical evaluations of other previously published studies. These can also take the form of a meta-analysis in which the results of a number of studies are used to answer a question, such as what is the recommended way to treat a certain disease.
  • Theoretical articles aim at developing new theories based on existing research.

A peer-reviewed original article usually follows a specific layout, including the following elements.


In an abstract, a short summary of the article is provided, presenting the aim, method, results and conclusions of the article. Keywords are also provided to help identify the contents of the article.


An article usually starts with a general background. The aim and research questions are presented as well as the limits of the study.


In the method section, the methodology, and in some cases the material used, are described. The description provided should be detailed enough so that other researchers will be able to assess the reliability and credibility of the study and be able to repeat the research.


The research results are accounted for in this section. Diagrams and tables may also be included.


In this section, the results of the study are evaluated. Methodological considerations and how the results relate to earlier research are discussed. ​


All cited documents included in the article must be found in the reference list.

Note: the above content is directly quoted from the University Library Guides offered by the University Library at Jönköping University 


learning analytics

Learning analytics is a technique that uses data analysis to improve teaching and learning practices in online learning environments.

learning strategy

A learning strategy is an individual’s way of organizing and using a particular set of skills in order to learn content or accomplish other tasks more effectively and efficiently in school as well as in non-academic settings (Schumaker & Deshler, 1992). (Source)


Generally speaking, the ability to read. Most often used to describe the art of reading skillfully.

Literature Review

That part of an article where prior research is presented to support the Research Argument and shape the Research Question.


Material Analysis

A type of Qualitative Research that looks at such things as documents, records, cultural artifacts, and other products of material culture.


The measure of Central Tendency known as the average score. The Mean is an important concept in both Descriptive and Inferential Statistics.

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