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Case Study

A type of Qualitative Research method where a small number of people or situations, sometimes even only one person or situation, is examined in great depth.

Central Tendency

One property of Distributions that is examined in Descriptive Statistics. Central Tendency describes the ways that scores in a distribution cluster around some middle point. Common measures of Central Tendency include the Mode, Median, and Mean.


A statistical technique designed to compare expected and actually observed frequencies, to see if there are any differences between these two categories.


The part of the research article that follows the Results. In the conclusion, results are summarized, explained, implications are examined, and/or future research is suggested.

Conference proceedings

When researchers participate in conferences, it is with the purpose of presenting their research to colleagues within the same field, often internationally. The papers they produce for the conference are published in conference proceedings which are similar to books or anthologies. Like reports, conference proceedings can provide a good overview of current research.

Note: the above content is directly quoted from the University Library Guides offered by the University Library at Jönköping University

Confidence Error

Another name for a Type I Error, where the statistical test is too lenient and so the results cannot be trusted. Is also called a False Positive.


A measurement that never changes its value. As opposed to Variable.


A philosophical position adopted by some qualitative researchers. In its most radical form, constructivism argues that there is no inherent knowledge in the world, but that we create all knowledge. Less radical forms argue that we co-create certain kinds of knowledge in social situations.

Consumer of Research

A person who has no intention or need of becoming a researcher but who needs to know how to read and understand research reports and articles. As such people become more skilled and literate in research, they become Research Critics.

Convenience Sample

A type of Sample where Participants who are readily available are used. One of the weakest and least systematic types of Samples.

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