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Halo Effect

A source of systematic error in Quantitative Research where change of any kind tends to affect results in a positive way.


In this context, handbooks are defined as publications that provide theoretical overviews rather than practical instructions. Handbooks contain collections of chapters which cover a certain subject area or field. They can provide you with an introduction, the theories that are used within the research, and its most important authors, as well as good reference lists of the most important contributions to the field.

Handbooks explain the various terms used within the specific field. Therefore, handbooks provide a shortcut to important original sources.

Note: the above content is directly quoted from the University Library Guides offered by the University Library at Jönköping University


HEI refers to higher education institution.


Literally, the art of reading and interpreting texts. Modified in Qualitative Research as a way of interpreting Data and Patterns of Data as if they were texts.


In Quantitative Research, a claim systematically derived from the Research Question that is tested to see whether it is true or not.