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In Critical Theory, a set of unexamined but systematic beliefs that affect our behaviors without us being aware of them.

Illuminative Research Design

A type of Qualitative Research where the researcher is looking for new ways to understand some puzzling situation or phenomenon.


Often found in Conclusions sections of articles, these are discussions of what the Findings might mean when we look at the bigger picture.

Independent Variable

In an Experimental Design, the Variable that the researcher changes in order to create different levels of the treatment. In a Quasi-Experimental Design, this Variable is not under the strict control of the researcher, but changes in a systematic manner anyway. As opposed to a Dependent Variable.

Inferential Statistics

That branch of Statistics that looks at making decisions about whether or not two or more groups are significantly different from one another. As opposed to Descriptive Statistics.


The act of systematically looking at situations, phenomena, results, or findings in order to make sense of them.

Interpretive Research Design

A type of Qualitative Research where the researcher is seeking to look at some situation or phenomenon from a different type of systematic viewpoint.


Intervention can refer to a variety of actions taken to address a problem or issue. In the context of education, it often refers to targeted efforts aimed at improving student learning and achievement. These interventions may involve additional instruction, support services, or other resources designed to help students overcome academic challenges. The goal of an intervention is typically to identify and address the root causes of a problem in order to improve outcomes for students.


A Qualitative Research technique where Participants are asked to answer questions and provide information orally. Can be either structured interview, unstructured interview or semi-structured interview.


The beginning part of a research article, where the researchers lay out their Purpose, Goals, Research Questions, and Arguments.

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