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Another name for the entire group of people or things to be studied or measured. Most often, we draw a Sample from that Population to study instead.


A specialized type of Case Study, most often used in Qualitative Research, where a systematic and compelling artistically rendered picture of a Participant or group is rendered.


In certain Research Designs, a measurement you take after the treatment that will then be compared to the Pretest score.

Power Error

Another name for a Type II Error, where the statistical test is too stringent and so significant results cannot be identified. Is also called a False Negative.


In certain Research Designs, a measurement you take prior to the treatment that you will compare to the Posttest score.

Primary Article

An article written by the researchers who did the actual work, usually published in a Peer Reviewed journal. As opposed to a Secondary Article

"Primary article is written from primary research, where the authors of the study are the people who actually conduct the research, collect observable information (data), and analyze results. "Think pieces" (reflective and theoretical essays) and secondhand, filtered accounts of what "research says" are not included in primary, empirical research." (Beaudry & Miller, 2016, p.5)


Beaudry, J. S., & Miller, L. (2016). Research literacy: A primer for understanding and using research. Guilford Publications.


PRISMA is an evidence-based minimum set of items for reporting in systematic reviews and meta-analyses. PRISMA primarily focuses on the reporting of reviews evaluating the effects of interventions, but can also be used as a basis for reporting systematic reviews with objectives other than evaluating interventions (e.g. evaluating aetiology, prevalence, diagnosis or prognosis). (Source)


A mathematical principle that says that things do not have to be Deterministic, but only likely, in order to be systematic. Most tests used in Inferential Statistics are based on Probability.


That part of an article where the Methods and other logistical aspects are described in enough detail that the research can either be Replicated or fully understood.


In an article, the statement by the researchers of why they are doing the research in the first place.

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